Gidrewicz and Fenton, 2014. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the
nutrient content of preterm and term breast milk. BMC Pediatrics. 14; 216
Background: Breast milk nutrient content varies with prematurity and postnatal age. Our The aim was were to conduct a meta-analysis of preterm and term breast milk nutrient content (energy, protein, lactose, oligosaccharides, fat, calcium, and phosphorus); and to assess the influence of gestational and postnatal age. Additionally we assessed for differences by laboratory methods for: energy (measured vs. calculated estimates) and protein (true protein measurement vs. the total nitrogen estimates).
Methods: Systematic review results were summarized graphically to illustrate the changes in composition over time for term and preterm milk. Since breast milk fat content varies within feeds and diurnally, to obtain accurate estimates we limited the meta-analyses for fat and energy to 24-hour breast milk collections.
Results: Forty-one studies met the inclusion criteria: 26 (843 mothers) preterm studies and 30 (2299 mothers) term studies of breast milk composition. Preterm milk was higher in true protein than term milk, with differences up to 35% (0.7 g/dL) in colostrum, however, after postnatal day 3, most of the differences in true protein between preterm and term milk were within 0.2 g/dL, and the week 10–12 estimates suggested that term milk may be the same as preterm milk by that age. Colostrum was higher than mature milk for protein, and lower than mature milk for energy, fat and lactose for both preterm and term milk. Breast milk composition was relatively stable between 2 and 12 weeks. With milk maturation, there was a narrowing of the protein variance. Energy estimates differed whether measured or calculated, from −9 to 13%; true protein measurement vs. the total nitrogen estimates differed by 1 to 37%.
Conclusions: Although breast milk is highly variable between individuals, postnatal age and gestational stage (preterm versus term) were found to be important predictors of breast milk content. Energy content of breast milk calculated from the macronutrients provides poor estimates of measured energy, and protein estimated from the nitrogen over-estimates the protein milk content. When breast milk energy, macronutrient and mineral content cannot be directly measured the average values from these meta-analyses may provide useful estimates of mother’s milk energy and nutrient content.
Thakkar et al, 2013. Dynamics of Human Milk Nutrient Composition of Women from
Singapore with a Special Focus on Lipids. Am J Hum Biol. 25; 770–779
Background: A recent report suggested that human milk (HM) composition not only changes with lactation stages but also vary according to gender of the offspring. In spite of available literature, the dynamic changes of HM composition still remain to be completely explored and characterized. Progress in analytical technologies together with quantitative sampling of HM allows for a better quantification of HM nutrients and thereby providing a deeper understanding of the dynamics of HM secretion.
Objective: To characterize and quantify HM nutrients based on appropriate for analyses sampling procedures and advanced analytical methodologies.
Clinical study design: observatory, single center, longitudinal trial with HM collection at 30, 60, and 120 days postpartum from 50 mothers (singleton-deliveries of 25 male and 25 female infants). HM samples were analyzed for lipid, lactose, energy density, fatty acids, phospholipids, and gangliosides. Longitudinal analyses of the datasets have been carried out using linear mixed models.
Results: HM for male infants compared to females at 120 days, were higher for energy content and lipids by 24 and 39%, respectively. Similarly, other bioactive lipids such as linoleic acid, phospholipids and gangliosides were also significantly different based on the gender of the infant. Significant stage-based differences were observed for total lipids, energy density, phospholipids, and gangliosides. Such difference in HM composition may stem from different energy needs to cope up for individual growth and development.
Conclusion: Collectively, the current observations affirm that HM secretion, especially the lipid composition, is a very dynamic and personalized biological process